Commit 2dbdb4c1 authored by JosefD's avatar JosefD

info_updated

parent 0cfac470
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## WHAT IS IT?
This model represents an organization, such as a company, a university, a factory, etc., where *employees* are provided with a salary to deliver *added value* back to the organization.
This model represents an organization, such as a company, a university, a factory, etc., where *employees* are provided with a salary to deliver *added value* back to the organization.
The model provides a certain degree of cooperation between individuals -- part of the work is done by the employee alone and part of the work can be mutually exchanged with a colleague. This concept is based on the idea that employees exchange the specific work that the other colleague can process more efficiently.
This exchange consequently benefits both parties.
The willingness to deliver the exchanged part of the work between employees is simulated by PDG. This is a standard approach to study aspects of cooperation as it is known that spatialized PDG is an undecidable problem.
The employees share certain part of their own scope of work with a colleague. From the employee's point of view, the idea behind this concept is that my colleague is better at specific tasks than I am, and vice versa. If we exchange those parts of work then both of us will benefit from that. However, there might be a temptation to betray a colleague and do only mine part of work and benefit from higher performance. The issue of cooperation vs. betrayal is modeled by *Prisoner's Dilemma Game* (henceforth PDG). *(In case you are not familiar with PDG, take a look at NetLogo Library where you will find several models aimed on this topic.)*
The concept of stress and sickness is implemented in the model to reflect how "social discomfort" influences the economic performance of the company.
The model also includes management module that allows to adjust employees' rewarding strategy - whether to increase salary to those who have high performance or to those who are highly cooperative.
There are several variables in the model that can modify employees' behavior, system properties, management sensitivity, etc.
The management of the organization evaluates each employee, where performance and cooperativeness are considered for salary adjustments. The individual workload, the outcome of cooperation, and the salary increase or decrease have an impact on the employees' stress level and consequently on their motivation and related performance.
## HOW IT WORKS
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| | respond with a defection. Otherwise cooperates.
```
**Productivity** represents employee's ability to create profit for the company. For sake of simplicity, we assume each employee having fixed productivity during their life.
**Effort** represents an employee's inner motivation to work. While productivity describes the employee's abilities, effort describes how much the employee uses these abilities at a particular moment -- 0\% can be understood as "an employee does not work at all" while 100\% as "an employee does their best".
**Resistance to stress** is modeled as a capacity of a virtual stress container. If the stress level is below the given threshold, the employee is healthy and working. When the stress level exceeds the limit, the employee becomes sick and unable to work. When a sick employee returns to work, the stress container is emptied.
**Effort** represents an employee's inner motivation to work. While productivity describes the employee's abilities, effort describes how much the employee uses these abilities at a particular moment -- 0\% can be understood as "an employee does not work at all" while 100\% as "an employee does their best".
**Sickness** is a metaphor used to simulate the impact of high stress on working activities of employees. Sick employees do not produce any profit, but the company still supports them financially. Employees that are sick too often are fired and replaced. The tolerance for repeated sick leave is adjustable in the model, common to all employees, and fixed during the simulation.
## HOW TO USE IT
TBD
### Buttons
SETUP: Setup the world to initiate the model. The number of employees in the model is defined as a squared value of *initial-ws* variable, e.g. *initial-ws* of 15 equals 225 employees.
GO: The employees will continuously interact with colleagues to produce value.
GO ONCE: Same as GO except the employees will only take one step which is representing one day.
### Sliders
*initial-cooperation* defines the proportion of cooperative strategies (all except "Defect") vs. non-cooperative strategies ("Defect")
*cooperation-part* refers to the percentage of the work scope that is exchanged between co-workers, e.g. 20 = 20 % of the total amount of work will be exchanged with a partner for given round.
*initial-wage* is used to adjust the amount of money that every employee is given at the end of each simulation round.
*patience* define the tolerance for repeated sickness of employees. After the value is exceeded, then given employees leaves the company and is replaced with a new one.
*sickness-probability* adjusts the chance that an employee will turn sick when their stress capacity is exceeded.
*sick-slider* defines the length of sick leave, i.e. how many simulation rounds (days) the employee will stay 'at home'.
*budget-change* mimics company growth, i.e. by what percentage the net worth of company grows every round. Minimal and maximal budget variable define lower and upper limits of growth.
*Productivity*
represents employee's ability to create profit for the company. For sake of simplicity, we assume each employee having fixed productivity during their life. The productivity has normal distribution among the population, with mean value and standard deviation defined by *mean-value-producitity* and *std-deviation-productivity* sliders.
*Resistance to stress*
is modeled as a capacity of a virtual stress container. If the stress level is below the given threshold, the employee is healthy and working. When the stress level exceeds the limit, the employee becomes sick and unable to work. When a sick employee returns to work, the stress container is emptied. The stress resistance is also normally distributed among the population, as defined by sliders *mean-value-stress-limit* and *std-deviation-stress-limit*.
*Stress*:
There are several ways of how employees' stress is produced.
1) Social interaction - stress caused by defection in PDG, adjusted by *stress-modification-on-PD* slider.
2) Internal factors - stress caused by level of effort (slider *effort-stress-increase*) and stress caused by evaluation by management (slider *evaluation-stress-change*).
On the other hand, the stress level can also be lowered by *stress-regen* slider.
*Management decision module*:
The management may decide whether to reward employees for their performance, cooperativity or some ratio between these two aspects - this can be set up by the *sum-generated-vs-cooperation* slider. Low values = preference for performance; high values = preference for cooperation.
It is also possible to adjust how good or bad is the management at evaluation of employees by two sliders: *boss-insight-cooperation* and *boss-insight-performance*. High values = management is good at evaluation of employees, i.e. the evaluation is precise. Low values = management is poor at evaluation of employees, i.e. the evaluation is random.
*boss-reaction-time* defines the length of evaluation period, e.g. 30 = the information about employees' behavior is collected for period of 30 days and serve as a basepoint for evaluation.
*boss-reaction-intensity* adjusts the intensity of impact on salary after an employee is evaluated. For example 0.15 means that the management can only adjust 15% of the total salary. In other words, 85% of the salary is fixed.
*upper and lower performance limits* define maximal and minimal performance of one employee. Given that management evaluation has (de)motivational effects, the performance of an employee will rise or fall. However, this cannot repeat ad infinitum. These limits ensure that employees cannot drop under 50% or exceed 200% performance.
### Switches
*retirement*: Turn on and off the possibility to replace employees when they are repeatedly sick.
*fixed-performance* and *effort-change*: On by default. Might be turned off to nulify the motivational effects on employees performance.
## THINGS TO NOTICE
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Polygon -7500403 true true 270 75 225 30 30 225 75 270
Polygon -7500403 true true 30 75 75 30 270 225 225 270
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NetLogo 6.0.4
NetLogo 6.0.2
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